In the case of the simians it is thought that the loss of the ability to make vitamin C may have occurred much farther back in evolutionary history than the emergence of humans or even apes since it evidently occurred soon after the appearance of the first primates yet sometime after the split of early primates into the two major suborders Haplorrhini which cannot make vitamin C and its sister suborder of non. While glucose is in abundant supply in humans and animals there are four enzymes that are required to convert glucose into Vitamin C.
To see why lets examine the vitamin C biosynthetic pathway.
Animals that don't produce vitamin c. Some question whether ascorbic acid is an essential requirement for these species. How do they do it. Guinea pigs bats and dry-nosed primates have lost their ability to produce vitamin C in the same way.
Most animals make their own vitamin C. In fact the cells of nearly all animals on the planet make plenty of their own vitamin C and thus have no need for it in their diets. Other notable animals that do not synthesize vitamin C are insects invertebrates and fishes.
You are in RIGHT PLACE. Vitamin D is unique in that it is the only vitamin that can come from a non-food source namely sunshine. These are the tarsiers monkeys and apes including humans.
Hence the secret to vitamin C is our need to supplement. In the body of a Vitamin C making mammal the Vitamin C molecule is made from a few small modifications to the glucose molecule. Animals that do not produce vitamin C in their bodies such as humans do produce a specific type of fat molecule called lipoprotein a.
Because current laboratory guinea pig diets are supplemented with vitamin C scurvy has. It is essential for bone growth regulating the calcium and phosphorus content of bones and for cell communication. Humans and other primates are pretty unique in our need to have vitamin C in our diet.
However not all animals are able to get vitamin D from sunshine. Vitamin C is a critical essential nutrient to every animal but again humans the guinea pig monkeys and apes and many species of bats dont make vitamin C in the livers like all other animals do. The Guinea Pig can be made ill or toxic much more easily than a Vitamin C producing research animal.
The reason why cholesterol particles and other fatty particles deposit in the blood vessel wall is because some of them are coated with these sticky lipoprotein molecules which form a biological adhesive tape around the fatty particle. Other notable animals that do not synthesize vitamin C are insects invertebrates and fishes. Sailors would get this due to the lack of quality foods since they didnt have refrigeration which caused them to need to bring long shelf life foods.
Along with humans nonhuman primates guinea pigs bats and some fish and bird species require vitamin C as they cannot produce it themselves. The need for ascorbic acid may be very small for these species therefore they may supplement via their diet to maintain the proper levels of ascorbic acid. SMP30 knockout mice cannot internally produce vitamin C as normal mice do due to the lack of the gulonolactone oxidase enzyme.
Humans have only three of these. But dogs dont need vitamin C. This molecule is naturally very sticky.
The most notable species requiring vitamin C is us. 2011 What this figure depicts is the step-by-step synthesis that vertebrates body cells perform to create vitamin C. Scurvy is a disease caused by a lack of Vitamin C and was named sailors disease due to the occurrence from sailors out in the ocean for months.
Primates belonging to the Haplorrhini suborder including prosimian tarsiers new world monkeys old world monkeys humans and apes have lost the. Their bodies can synthesize vitamin C all on their own. 2008 Restoration of vitamin C synthesis in transgenic Gulo– mice by helper-dependent adenovirus-based expression of gulonolactone oxidase.